binding

The binding middleware provides request data binding and validation for Flame instances, including Form, Multipart Form, JSON and YAML formats.

You can read source code of this middleware on GitHubopen in new window and API documentation on pkg.go.devopen in new window.

Installation

The minimum requirement of Go is 1.16.

go get github.com/flamego/binding

Usage examples

TIP

Examples included in this section is to demonstrate the usage of the binding middleware, please refer to the documentation of validatoropen in new window package for validation syntax and constraints.

The type of binding object is injected into the request context and the special data type binding.Errorsopen in new window is provided to indicate any errors occurred in binding and/or validation phases.

DANGER

Pointers is prohibited be passed as the binding object to prevent side effects, and to make sure every handler gets a fresh copy of the object on every request.

Form

The binding.Formopen in new window takes a binding object and parses the request payload encoded as application/x-www-form-urlencoded, a binding.Optionsopen in new window can be used to further customize the behavior of the function.

The form struct tag should be used to indicate the binding relations between the payload and the object:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/flamego/binding"
	"github.com/flamego/flamego"
	"github.com/flamego/template"
	"github.com/flamego/validator"
)

type User struct {
	FirstName string   `form:"first_name" validate:"required"`
	LastName  string   `form:"last_name" validate:"required"`
	Age       int      `form:"age" validate:"gte=0,lte=130"`
	Email     string   `form:"email" validate:"required,email"`
	Hashtags  []string `form:"hashtag"`
}

func main() {
	f := flamego.Classic()
	f.Use(template.Templater())
	f.Get("/", func(t template.Template) {
		t.HTML(http.StatusOK, "home")
	})
	f.Post("/", binding.Form(User{}), func(w http.ResponseWriter, form User, errs binding.Errors) {
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			var err error
			switch errs[0].Category {
			case binding.ErrorCategoryValidation:
				err = errs[0].Err.(validator.ValidationErrors)[0]
			default:
				err = errs[0].Err
			}
			w.WriteHeader(http.StatusBadRequest)
			_, _ = w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("Oops! Error occurred: %v", err)))
			return
		}

		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
		w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("User: %#+v", form)))
	})
	f.Run()
}
<form method="POST">
  <div>
    <label>First name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Last name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="last_name" value="Smith">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Age:</label>
    <input type="number" name="age" value="90">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Email:</label>
    <input type="email" name="email" value="john@example.com">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Hashtags:</label>
    <select name="hashtag" multiple>
      <option value="driver">Driver</option>
      <option value="developer">Developer</option>
      <option value="runner">Runner</option>
    </select>
  </div>
  <input type="submit" name="button" value="Submit">
</form>

Multipart Form

The binding.MultipartFormopen in new window takes a binding object and parses the request payload encoded as multipart/form-data, a binding.Optionsopen in new window can be used to further customize the behavior of the function.

The form struct tag should be used to indicate the binding relations between the payload and the object, and *multipart.FileHeaderopen in new window should be type of the field that you're going to store the uploaded content:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"mime/multipart"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/flamego/binding"
	"github.com/flamego/flamego"
	"github.com/flamego/template"
	"github.com/flamego/validator"
)

type User struct {
	FirstName string                `form:"first_name" validate:"required"`
	LastName  string                `form:"last_name" validate:"required"`
	Avatar    *multipart.FileHeader `form:"avatar"`
}

func main() {
	f := flamego.Classic()
	f.Use(template.Templater())
	f.Get("/", func(t template.Template) {
		t.HTML(http.StatusOK, "home")
	})
	f.Post("/", binding.MultipartForm(User{}), func(w http.ResponseWriter, form User, errs binding.Errors) {
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			var err error
			switch errs[0].Category {
			case binding.ErrorCategoryValidation:
				err = errs[0].Err.(validator.ValidationErrors)[0]
			default:
				err = errs[0].Err
			}
			w.WriteHeader(http.StatusBadRequest)
			_, _ = w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("Oops! Error occurred: %v", err)))
			return
		}

		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
		w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("User: %#+v", form)))
	})
	f.Run()
}
<form enctype="multipart/form-data" method="POST">
  <div>
    <label>First name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Last name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="last_name" value="Smith">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Avatar:</label>
    <input type="file" name="avatar">
  </div>
  <input type="submit" name="button" value="Submit">
</form>

JSON

The binding.JSONopen in new window takes a binding object and parses the request payload encoded as application/json, a binding.Optionsopen in new window can be used to further customize the behavior of the function.

The json struct tag should be used to indicate the binding relations between the payload and the object:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/flamego/binding"
	"github.com/flamego/flamego"
	"github.com/flamego/validator"
)

type Address struct {
	Street string `json:"street" validate:"required"`
	City   string `json:"city" validate:"required"`
	Planet string `json:"planet" validate:"required"`
	Phone  string `json:"phone" validate:"required"`
}

type User struct {
	FirstName string     `json:"first_name" validate:"required"`
	LastName  string     `json:"last_name" validate:"required"`
	Age       uint8      `json:"age" validate:"gte=0,lte=130"`
	Email     string     `json:"email" validate:"required,email"`
	Addresses []*Address `json:"addresses" validate:"required,dive,required"`
}

func main() {
	f := flamego.Classic()
	f.Post("/", binding.JSON(User{}), func(w http.ResponseWriter, form User, errs binding.Errors) {
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			var err error
			switch errs[0].Category {
			case binding.ErrorCategoryValidation:
				err = errs[0].Err.(validator.ValidationErrors)[0]
			default:
				err = errs[0].Err
			}
			w.WriteHeader(http.StatusBadRequest)
			_, _ = w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("Oops! Error occurred: %v", err)))
			return
		}

		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
		w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("User: %#+v", form)))
	})
	f.Run()
}

YAML

The binding.YAMLopen in new window takes a binding object and parses the request payload encoded as application/yaml, a binding.Optionsopen in new window can be used to further customize the behavior of the function.

The yaml struct tag should be used to indicate the binding relations between the payload and the object:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/flamego/binding"
	"github.com/flamego/flamego"
	"github.com/flamego/validator"
)

type Address struct {
	Street string `yaml:"street" validate:"required"`
	City   string `yaml:"city" validate:"required"`
	Planet string `yaml:"planet" validate:"required"`
	Phone  string `yaml:"phone" validate:"required"`
}

type User struct {
	FirstName string     `yaml:"first_name" validate:"required"`
	LastName  string     `yaml:"last_name" validate:"required"`
	Age       uint8      `yaml:"age" validate:"gte=0,lte=130"`
	Email     string     `yaml:"email" validate:"required,email"`
	Addresses []*Address `yaml:"addresses" validate:"required,dive,required"`
}

func main() {
	f := flamego.Classic()
	f.Post("/", binding.YAML(User{}), func(w http.ResponseWriter, form User, errs binding.Errors) {
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			var err error
			switch errs[0].Category {
			case binding.ErrorCategoryValidation:
				err = errs[0].Err.(validator.ValidationErrors)[0]
			default:
				err = errs[0].Err
			}
			w.WriteHeader(http.StatusBadRequest)
			_, _ = w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("Oops! Error occurred: %v", err)))
			return
		}

		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
		w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("User: %#+v", form)))
	})
	f.Run()
}

Localize validation errors

If your web application supports localization for users speak in different languages, it is equally important to provide the error message in their preferred language.

Here is a playable example in your browser to get a taste of how to localize validation errors in your own style!

$ tree .
.
├── locales
│   ├── locale_en-US.ini
│   └── locale_zh-CN.ini
├── templates
│   └── home.tmpl
├── go.mod
├── go.sum
└── main.go
package main

import (
	"errors"
	"fmt"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/flamego/binding"
	"github.com/flamego/flamego"
	"github.com/flamego/i18n"
	"github.com/flamego/template"
	"github.com/flamego/validator"
)

type User struct {
	FirstName string `form:"first_name" validate:"required"`
	LastName  string `form:"last_name" validate:"required"`
	Age       int    `form:"age" validate:"gte=0,lte=130"`
	Email     string `form:"email" validate:"required,email"`
}

func main() {
	f := flamego.Classic()
	f.Use(template.Templater())
	f.Use(i18n.I18n(
		i18n.Options{
			Languages: []i18n.Language{
				{Name: "en-US", Description: "English"},
				{Name: "zh-CN", Description: "简体中文"},
			},
		},
	))
	f.Get("/", func(t template.Template) {
		t.HTML(http.StatusOK, "home")
	})
	f.Post("/", binding.Form(User{}), func(w http.ResponseWriter, form User, errs binding.Errors, l i18n.Locale) {
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			var err error
			switch errs[0].Category {
			case binding.ErrorCategoryValidation:
				verr := errs[0].Err.(validator.ValidationErrors)[0]
				name := l.Translate("field::" + verr.Namespace())
				param := verr.Param()
				var reason string
				if param == "" {
					reason = l.Translate("validation::" + verr.Tag())
				} else {
					reason = l.Translate("validation::"+verr.Tag(), verr.Param())
				}
				err = errors.New(name + reason)
			default:
				err = errs[0].Err
			}
			w.WriteHeader(http.StatusBadRequest)
			_, _ = w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("Oops! Error occurred: %v", err)))
			return
		}

		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
		w.Write([]byte(fmt.Sprintf("User: %#+v", form)))
	})
	f.Run()
}








































 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 













<form method="POST">
  <div>
    <label>First name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Last name:</label>
    <input type="text" name="last_name" value="Smith">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Age:</label>
    <input type="number" name="age" value="90">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Email:</label>
    <input type="email" name="email" value="john@example.com">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label>Language:</label>
    <a href="?lang=en-US">English</a>,
    <a href="?lang=zh-CN">简体中文</a>
  </div>
  <input type="submit" name="button" value="Submit">
</form>
[field]
User.FirstName = First name
User.LastName = Last name
User.Age = Age
User.Email = Email

[validation]
required = ` cannot be empty`
gte = ` must be greater than or equal to %s`
lte = ` must be less than or equal to %s`
email = ` must be an email address`
[field]
User.FirstName = 名字
User.LastName = 姓氏
User.Age = 年龄
User.Email = 邮箱

[validation]
required = 不能为空
gte = 必须大于或等于 %s
lte = 必须小于或等于 %s
email = 必须是一个电子邮箱地址